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yumによるRHELの保守的パッチ適用方法

何の話かというと

Red Hat Networkに登録したRHELシステムであれば、

# yum update

とすれば、すべてのパッケージが自動的に最新にアップデートされます。あるいは、

# yum install hogehoge

とすれば、hogehogeの最新バージョンと依存パッケージがまとめてインストールされます。

しかしながら、場合によっては、特定のパッケージだけ特定のバージョンに上げたい、とか、いきなりインストールするのではなくて、まずはRPMファイルをダウンロードして、根掘り葉掘り調べてからインストールしたい、という場合もあります。

このような際に、yumを使わずに、Red HatのCustomer Portalから個別にRPMをダウンロードして対応している方も多いと思いますが、実は、yumでもそのようなきめ細かな対応は可能です。特に、EC2/Nifty Cloudなどで時間課金のRHELを使う場合、始めからyumリポジトリにアクセスできるように構成されているので便利です。

以下、EC2のRHELでの操作例を示します。

リポジトリの構成の確認

EC2上にRHELのリポジトリが用意されています。

# yum repolist
Loaded plugins: amazon-id, product-id, rhui-lb, security, subscription-manager
Updating certificate-based repositories.
Unable to read consumer identity
rhui-ap-northeast-1-client-config-server-6               | 2.6 kB     00:00     
rhui-ap-northeast-1-client-config-server-6/primary_db    | 3.1 kB     00:00     
rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases                 | 3.7 kB     00:00     
rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases/primary_db      |  18 MB     00:00     
rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases-optional        | 3.5 kB     00:00     
rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases-optional/primar | 2.2 MB     00:00     
repo id                                           repo name               status
rhui-ap-northeast-1-client-config-server-6        Red Hat Update Infrastr     1
rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases          Red Hat Enterprise Linu 8,896
rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases-optional Red Hat Enterprise Linu 5,477
repolist: 14,374

利用可能な全てのバージョンを確認

リポジトリには、最新バージョンだけではなく、古いバージョンもちゃんと入っています。「--showduplicate」オプションで確認できます。

# yum --showduplicate list httpd
Loaded plugins: amazon-id, product-id, rhui-lb, security, subscription-manager
Updating certificate-based repositories.
Unable to read consumer identity
Available Packages
httpd.x86_64     2.2.15-5.el6           rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases
httpd.x86_64     2.2.15-9.el6           rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases
httpd.x86_64     2.2.15-9.el6_1.2       rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases
httpd.x86_64     2.2.15-9.el6_1.3       rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases
httpd.x86_64     2.2.15-15.el6          rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases
httpd.x86_64     2.2.15-15.el6_2.1      rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases

特定バージョンをインストール

バージョン指定でインストールが可能です。

# yum install httpd-2.2.15-9.el6_1.3
Loaded plugins: amazon-id, product-id, rhui-lb, security, subscription-manager
Updating certificate-based repositories.
Unable to read consumer identity
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package httpd.x86_64 0:2.2.15-9.el6_1.3 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: httpd-tools = 2.2.15-9.el6_1.3 for package: httpd-2.2.15-9.el6_1.3.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: apr-util-ldap for package: httpd-2.2.15-9.el6_1.3.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libaprutil-1.so.0()(64bit) for package: httpd-2.2.15-9.el6_1.3.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libapr-1.so.0()(64bit) for package: httpd-2.2.15-9.el6_1.3.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package apr.x86_64 0:1.3.9-5.el6_2 will be installed
---> Package apr-util.x86_64 0:1.3.9-3.el6_0.1 will be installed
---> Package apr-util-ldap.x86_64 0:1.3.9-3.el6_0.1 will be installed
---> Package httpd-tools.x86_64 0:2.2.15-9.el6_1.3 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

================================================================================
 Package Arch   Version          Repository                                Size
================================================================================
Installing:
 httpd   x86_64 2.2.15-9.el6_1.3 rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases 808 k
Installing for dependencies:
 apr     x86_64 1.3.9-5.el6_2    rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases 123 k
 apr-util
         x86_64 1.3.9-3.el6_0.1  rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases  87 k
 apr-util-ldap
         x86_64 1.3.9-3.el6_0.1  rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases  15 k
 httpd-tools
         x86_64 2.2.15-9.el6_1.3 rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases  69 k

Transaction Summary
================================================================================
Install       5 Package(s)

Total download size: 1.1 M
Installed size: 3.5 M
Is this ok [y/N]: 

バージョン指定のアップデートも可能です。

# yum update httpd-2.2.15-15.el6
Loaded plugins: amazon-id, product-id, rhui-lb, security, subscription-manager
Updating certificate-based repositories.
Unable to read consumer identity
Setting up Update Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package httpd.x86_64 0:2.2.15-9.el6_1.3 will be updated
---> Package httpd.x86_64 0:2.2.15-15.el6 will be an update
--> Processing Dependency: httpd-tools = 2.2.15-15.el6 for package: httpd-2.2.15-15.el6.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package httpd-tools.x86_64 0:2.2.15-9.el6_1.3 will be updated
---> Package httpd-tools.x86_64 0:2.2.15-15.el6 will be an update
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

================================================================================
 Package    Arch   Version       Repository                                Size
================================================================================
Updating:
 httpd      x86_64 2.2.15-15.el6 rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases 808 k
Updating for dependencies:
 httpd-tools
            x86_64 2.2.15-15.el6 rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases  70 k

Transaction Summary
================================================================================
Upgrade       2 Package(s)

Total download size: 878 k
Is this ok [y/N]: 

バージョン指定のダウングレードも可能です。

# yum downgrade httpd-2.2.15-5.el6
Loaded plugins: amazon-id, product-id, rhui-lb, security, subscription-manager
Updating certificate-based repositories.
Unable to read consumer identity
Setting up Downgrade Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package httpd.x86_64 0:2.2.15-5.el6 will be a downgrade
--> Processing Dependency: httpd-tools = 2.2.15-5.el6 for package: httpd-2.2.15-5.el6.x86_64
---> Package httpd.x86_64 0:2.2.15-15.el6 will be erased
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
Error: Package: httpd-2.2.15-5.el6.x86_64 (rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases)
           Requires: httpd-tools = 2.2.15-5.el6
           Installed: httpd-tools-2.2.15-15.el6.x86_64 (@rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases)
               httpd-tools = 2.2.15-15.el6
           Available: httpd-tools-2.2.15-5.el6.x86_64 (rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases)
               httpd-tools = 2.2.15-5.el6
           Available: httpd-tools-2.2.15-9.el6.x86_64 (rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases)
               httpd-tools = 2.2.15-9.el6
           Available: httpd-tools-2.2.15-9.el6_1.2.x86_64 (rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases)
               httpd-tools = 2.2.15-9.el6_1.2
           Available: httpd-tools-2.2.15-9.el6_1.3.x86_64 (rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases)
               httpd-tools = 2.2.15-9.el6_1.3
           Available: httpd-tools-2.2.15-15.el6_2.1.x86_64 (rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases)
               httpd-tools = 2.2.15-15.el6_2.1
 You could try using --skip-broken to work around the problem
 You could try running: rpm -Va --nofiles --nodigest

おっと。。。この場合は、依存パッケージも同時にダウングレードする必要があるようです。

# yum downgrade httpd-2.2.15-5.el6 httpd-tools-2.2.15-5.el6
Loaded plugins: amazon-id, product-id, rhui-lb, security, subscription-manager
Updating certificate-based repositories.
Unable to read consumer identity
Setting up Downgrade Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package httpd.x86_64 0:2.2.15-5.el6 will be a downgrade
---> Package httpd.x86_64 0:2.2.15-15.el6 will be erased
---> Package httpd-tools.x86_64 0:2.2.15-5.el6 will be a downgrade
---> Package httpd-tools.x86_64 0:2.2.15-15.el6 will be erased
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

================================================================================================================
 Package             Arch           Version              Repository                                        Size
================================================================================================================
Downgrading:
 httpd               x86_64         2.2.15-5.el6         rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases         811 k
 httpd-tools         x86_64         2.2.15-5.el6         rhui-ap-northeast-1-rhel-server-releases          68 k

Transaction Summary
================================================================================================================
Downgrade     2 Package(s)

Total download size: 879 k
Is this ok [y/N]: 

特定バージョンのRPMをダウンロード

yumdownloaderでRPMをダウンロードすることができます。--resolveオプションを指定すると、インストール時に依存してインストールされるRPMも併せてダウンロードします。

# yumdownloader --resolve httpd-2.2.15-9.el6_1.3
Loaded plugins: amazon-id, product-id, rhui-lb
--> Running transaction check
---> Package httpd.x86_64 0:2.2.15-9.el6_1.3 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: httpd-tools = 2.2.15-9.el6_1.3 for package: httpd-2.2.15-9.el6_1.3.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: apr-util-ldap for package: httpd-2.2.15-9.el6_1.3.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libaprutil-1.so.0()(64bit) for package: httpd-2.2.15-9.el6_1.3.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libapr-1.so.0()(64bit) for package: httpd-2.2.15-9.el6_1.3.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package apr.x86_64 0:1.3.9-5.el6_2 will be installed
---> Package apr-util.x86_64 0:1.3.9-3.el6_0.1 will be installed
---> Package apr-util-ldap.x86_64 0:1.3.9-3.el6_0.1 will be installed
---> Package httpd-tools.x86_64 0:2.2.15-9.el6_1.3 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
httpd-2.2.15-9.el6_1.3.x86_64.rpm                        | 808 kB     00:00     
httpd-tools-2.2.15-9.el6_1.3.x86_64.rpm                  |  69 kB     00:00     
apr-util-ldap-1.3.9-3.el6_0.1.x86_64.rpm                 |  15 kB     00:00     
apr-util-1.3.9-3.el6_0.1.x86_64.rpm                      |  87 kB     00:00     
apr-1.3.9-5.el6_2.x86_64.rpm                             | 123 kB     00:00     

# ls
apr-1.3.9-5.el6_2.x86_64.rpm
apr-util-1.3.9-3.el6_0.1.x86_64.rpm
apr-util-ldap-1.3.9-3.el6_0.1.x86_64.rpm
httpd-2.2.15-9.el6_1.3.x86_64.rpm
httpd-tools-2.2.15-9.el6_1.3.x86_64.rpm

まとめて全部ダウンロード

reposyncコマンドを使うと、リポジトリをまるごとダウンロードすることも可能です。詳細はmanページで確認ください。